Organizations tasked with ensuring their electronic content is accessible aren’t really interested in the technical details. They need straightforward solutions, usable workflows, reliable results and accountable systems.
Throughout the US federal government the accessibility requirement these agencies must meet is Section 508, which itself identifies WCAG 2.0 Level AA as its standard, among other requirements.
Many other governments worldwide also use WCAG 2.0, and increasingly, it's being adopted in commercial settings engaged in improving their accessibility to disabled populations.
As an operational matter, the process of assuring that content is accessible involves substantial training, adequate software and sufficient staff-time. Anything that helps streamline this process, reduces costs, or facilitates accessibility upgrades or validation in more content, is of interest.
PDF remains indispensable. A recent analysis presented at PDF Days Europe 2018 concluded that 1 in 20 static web pages was a PDF file. But the web holds just a small fraction of documents. Trillions of PDF files exist in private collections as the embodiment of documentation, contracts, invoices, statements, policies, records, terms, maps, academic papers and so many more applications.
Due to PDF's inherent flexibility, the testing required to account for the potential variety of content in PDF files can be substantial. PDF/UA, the ISO specification for accessible PDF, packages these requirements together and includes (according to the Matterhorn Protocol) 136 distinct tests for accessible PDF files.
This might seem daunting. Which is unfortunate, because it should be liberating.
Of the 136 tests described in the Matterhorn Protocol, 87 may be fully automated with software. Human intervention is only required to assess and correct any errors located by software.
The 47 checks that may require human judgement boil down to:
All of these tests may be performed very efficiently by software designed for PDF/UA validation. For example. it's possible to perform most of these tests via a quick review of pages and tags.
Applying PDF/UA to accessibility-validation processes allows one to package sets of tests together, streamlining the validation process.
If agencies can learn to use the PDF/UA indicator, accessibility checklists can get a lot easier. Authors and vendors could leverage PDF/UA as part of a declaration of conformance ( VPAT in Section 508 jargon) for each document. Deliverables specifications might then be summarized as:
This approach would set clear, consumable expectations and reduce testing complexity to help drive achievement of organizational accessibility objectives.
Duff serves the PDF industry as ISO Project co-Leader and US TAG chair for both ISO 32000 (the PDF specification) and ISO 14289 (PDF/UA). As Executive Director of the PDF Association, Duff coordinates several working groups, speaks at a wide variety of industry events and promotes the advancement and adoption of PDF technology worldwide. An independent consultant, Duff Johnson is a veteran …