The Portable Document Format is perhaps the most common example of a de facto standard, so much so that Wikipedia features PDF on its "de facto standards" page.
From Ethernet and 802.11 to HTTP and CSS, the modern computing stack consists of hundreds of standards. The way in which PDF exemplifies the specific value of standards is almost unique, for PDF’s value proposition – the reason why PDF is today’s worldwide de facto standard for electronic documents – is the fact of standardization itself.
While exceptions are possible, PDF files are, in principle, entirely self-contained and fully interoperable, working equally well with standards-conforming PDF software from every vendor. End-users should be able to gain equivalent results irrespective of their choice of software.
This core capability – the fact that PDF technology makes it possible for different software to have the same results – is the key to the technology’s success.
Invented by Adobe Systems and first released in 1993, Adobe’s PDF version 1.7 became ISO 32000-1 in 2008. Since then, over 40 members of ISO TC 171 SC 2 WG 8 from 20 countries have contributed to development of the PDF specification.
It didn't take PDF 2.0 to make PDF one of the most powerful and flexible formats ever invented. Just some of PDF's capabilities (most are almost 20 years old!) include:
"Today PDF is so easy to use that it perceived as absolutely given. People often forget that it actually is a technology that's more than 20 years old - eons in the IT world. The great thing in PDF 2.0 is that it renovates almost every part of PDF without removing or significantly changing any of its features and USPs. Its many clarifications and modifications are a translation of all the experiences that the community has made during these 20 years."Dietrich von Seggern Managing Director, callas software & & Vice Chairman, PDF Association
"PDF 2.0 is a big step in the evolution of the PDF technology. It is a great result of the combined effort of leading specialists in the field. Notable updates of the security model and logical structure bring PDF up to date with the constantly changing digital world." Boris Doubrov CEO, Dual Lab
"We are really glad to see the PDF 2.0 effort finally coming to fruition. It is a major step in the evolution of PDF being an open and independent standard. We at Foxit are really excited about the opportunity to provide PDF 2.0 compliant suite of software to the market, and strive to be early and best among the group of PDF vendors. We are particularly excited about some of the new features that further improves the usefulness of PDF documents, and look forward to their wide adoption."Steven Li CTO, Foxit
"Nitro is delighted to recognise the publication of the PDF 2.0 standard. This will be a watershed moment for digital documents: everyone can now benefit from an internationally recognised, truly open standard. This is a big deal for those of us interested in digital transformation. We look forward to supporting the new standard." Justin Durkan Director of Desktop Engineering, Nitro
"As an active member of the ISO working group that developed PDF 2.0, Adobe is excited that see it finally reach publication. These last 8 years of discussion and debate amongst experts from around the world have led to what we believe is the most approachable version of the PDF standard to date." Leonard Rosenthol PDF Architect, Adobe Systems
In PDF 2.0, the fundamentals of PDF remain the same, so much so that perhaps the most important enhancement is also the most subtle. PDF 2.0 addresses ambiguities, corrects errors and updates normative references. Hundreds of other pages were touched; some a little, some a lot. Although these changes don't represent new features per se, they make it much easier to implement the specification. In short, PDF 2.0 will make it easier and less costly for developers to improve their support for PDF technology at every level.
PDF 2.0 includes many entirely new features in addition to the improvements to the existing specification:
PDF 2.0 includes significant enhancements to existing features. This list is only the highlights...
Six critical clauses totaling 14% of the 972 page specification were entirely rewritten for clarity and consistency. In some cases, especially transparency, tagged PDF and repurposing, the specification was also substantially enhanced. The areas that were completely rewritten are:
ISO 32000-2 is the first PDF specification developed entirely within the ISO guidelines and process. It supports non-proprietary technologies and ensures a level playing-field for software vendors that create, display, edit or otherwise process PDF electronic documents. In addition, as features were modernized, the ISO committee elected to deprecate obsolete aspects to reduce the burden on implementers. Deprecated items include:
Nine years in development, PDF 2.0 is both an evolutionary and revolutionary specification.
As such, in addition to staying true to PDF’s core values, PDF 2.0 extends and strengthens PDF's already solid foundation for new use-cases, capabilities and workflows. It's time for PDF 2.0.
Duff serves the PDF industry as ISO Project co-Leader and US TAG chair for both ISO 32000 (the PDF specification) and ISO 14289 (PDF/UA). As Executive Director of the PDF Association, Duff coordinates several working groups, speaks at a wide variety of industry events and promotes the advancement and adoption of PDF technology worldwide. An independent consultant, Duff Johnson is a veteran …