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About the contributor
Duff Johnson

A veteran of the electronic document space, Duff Johnson is an independent consultant, Executive Director of the PDF Association and ISO Project co-Leader (and US TAG chair) for ISO 32000 and ISO 14289.
More contributions
Talking about electronic documents

We’ve done PDF Day events and technical conferences across Europe, in the US, in Australia, and elsewhere. This Electronic Document Conference is the first PDF Association event that’s open to all technologies pertaining to documents. It’s about explor …

Happy new logo!

2006: The PDF/A Competence Center A new year brings new things, and 2019 is no exception! The “four red blocks” logo was first created for the PDF/A Competence Center in 2006. When that organization became the PDF Association in 2011, the design was ad …

Save-The-Date: PDF Day France, Toulouse, April 4, 2019

PDF Day France will be the first French-speaking event of the PDF Association, organised by our member ORPALIS. It will take place in Toulouse which is the home ground of Airbus and we are very happy that Airbus will present a case study around its usage of PDF in their document management environment!

Electronic Document Conference: Call for Papers

Prospective presenters at the Electronic Document Conference 2019 are invited to submit high-quality original proposals for 25-minute presentations on subjects of interest to developers and technical product managers concerned with electronic document implementations.

Have we passed ‘peak PDF’?

How do we gain insight into how users’ views of documents are shifting? Google Trends is an increasingly interesting source of high-level marketplace data. By aggregating Google’s search data over time, reporting a term’s popularity as compared with all other searches.

The Value of Tagged PDF

PDF was originally intended to serve as electronic paper; a properly rendered page irrespective of software or operating system.  Pages, however, aren’t just for reading. Since people like to add notes, draw lines and fill forms, Adobe Systems, the inventors of PDF, decided to cater to these uses as well. PDF rapidly accumulated new features beyond faithfulness to the rendered page – it began to mirror the interactive capabilities of real paper.

The first generation of interactive PDF features consisted of annotations of various types. Some allowed users to add text, others allowed users to draw lines and boxes onto the page. Still others go beyond the paradigm of the page, making it possible to add hyperlinks,  audio and movies to PDF.

The second generation of interactive PDF brought the ability to deploy a PDF’s content outside the page-based world.

Tagged PDF provides the means to effectively deploy a final-form document to a mobile device. It’s the same means by which PDF files may be made accessible to users who requires Assistive Technology (AT) to read.

One of the primary motivations for tagged PDF was to achieve compliance with regulations that require electronic documents to be accessible to users with disabilities, but implementers can leverage tagged PDF to accomplish or enhance a wide range of end user activities.

The following table indicates the utlity of untagged vs. tagged PDF content.

Untagged Content Tagged Content
No semantic types or ordering; content is ordered solely for rendering purposes Semantic type and order is determined, content may be reused accordingly
Search engines cannot reliably access words and phrases Search engines get reliable access to content.
No reliable means of reflowing page content onto smaller devices Includes information necessary for reflow
“Real” content and “artifacts” aren’t distinguished Consuming software can choose to utilize or ignore artifacts
Content copying and extraction is unreliable Content may be extracted with confidence
Not eligible for PDF/A conformance level A May conform with PDF/A conformance level A
Cannot comply with WCAG 2.0 or Section 508 May comply with WCAG 2.0, Section 508 and other accessibility regulations
Inaccessible to disabled users Accessible to those with PDF-aware Assistive Technology

Tags: Section 508, WCAG 2.0, assistive technology, mobile, tags
Categories: PDF, PDF/UA