It’s a question that vexes vendors of web-based solutions everywhere: why do people still insist on PDF files? And why does PDF’s mindshare keep going up? “PDF is such antediluvian technology!” they say. “It’s pre-web, are you kidding me? It’s so old-f …PDF Association technical resources: an overview
PDF is PDF because files produced with one vendor’s software can be read using a different vendor’s software with no loss of fidelity. Interoperability is key to our industry. The PDF Association is a international membership organization dedicated to …2022: The last year of paper for records-keeping
NARA (The National Archives and Records Administration) is the final depository for the long-term records generated by all other agencies of the U.S. Federal Government. The agency has a key role in preserving the cultural history of the republic as we …PDF 2.0 examples now available
The PDF Association is proud to present the first PDF 2.0 example files made available to the public. Created and donated to the PDF Association by Datalogics, this initial set of PDF 2.0 examples were crafted by hand and intentionally made simple in construction to serve as teaching tools for learning PDF file structure and syntax.PDF 2.0 interops help vendors
The PDF 2.0 interop workshops included many vendors with products for creating, editing and processing PDF files. They came together in Boston, Massachusetts for a couple of days to test their own software against 3rd party files.
I spend most of my time working with the Harlequin RIP, and that hit a major milestone in 2013: 25 years of use in production print. That kind of event makes you think back over the last few years and marvel at how much everything has changed. Twenty five years ago PostScript Level 1 was just gaining a lead against proprietary control languages and font formats. Try to imagine that situation in graphic arts today!
In 1991 I was present in San Jose when John Warnock announced what would become PDF as editable PostScript. Many of us didnt really understand the goal. As it turned out thats because that goal didnt seem to include production printing, but print companies assumed that anything from Adobe must be good for their needs, and persevered through the early PDF versions, struggling to fill the gaps between what was in the spec and their requirements.
With PDF 1.3 Adobe finally delivered a good foundation for print. It must have felt odd to be bludgeoned into developing a product for a market that didnt seem to be in their original business plan. Everyone started talking about and building PDF workflows for print. CGATS in the USA also started developing a subset standard based on PDF, called PDF/X, although it took until 1999 to be first published.
I remember the hype at the time, that because PDF didnt need to be interpreted, unlike PostScript it was so robust that you wouldnt even need to preflight. Of course, we all know now that neither part of that statement is true, but that good tooling from a variety of vendors can streamline your workflows anyway.
And then came PDF 1.4. Suddenly PDF was complicated and difficult again because of live transparency. It seemed to take more than another decade before print buyers and print service providers were confident that transparent objects could be rendered and separated properly for print. Some havent yet reached that point
In parallel with the development of PDF itself there was an explosion of interest and investment into print-related standards. Many are around colour, but there were more than ten ISO conformance levels of PDF/X, building on the initial efforts in CGATS. The success of PDF/X triggered work on other subset standards, leading to PDF/A, PDF/E, PDF/UA and PDF/VT or so it seemed to me; I was working in various PDF/X committees from about 1996 onwards, so I may be slightly biased
I remember being asked by a journalist sometime around 2005, what I wanted to see in the next version of PDF. I replied that the best thing for the print industry, at least, would be a period of calm and stability with no significant new features in the format so that everyone could get caught up and comfortable with the way things worked. That surprised the journalist because they were used to everything being hyped up on new features in the latest version of both products and formats. But PDF always needed to be treated as a standard, as something thats exchanged between thousands of different products from hundreds of different vendors.
And now, since 2008, PDF itself is an ISO standard, published as ISO 32000-1. That doesnt mean that its stopped evolving, but it does mean that its no longer directed solely by the commercial demands of a single vendor. The involvement of many companies, either directly or through groups like the PDF Association, ensures a very high standard of review and guidance.
Long may that continue!
CTO, Global Graphics
Given the status of PDF: now 20 years old, and an ISO standard, it may be surprising to some people how many PDF files delivered in workflows for professional usage (in my case for professional print, but also in corporate and enterprise environments) dont conform to the specification.
If theyre broken, why dont I see errors popping up all over the place? I hear you cry. The answer is simple. For the vast majority of vendors and developers of tools that read PDF files it would be commercial suicide to respond to bad PDFs with an error. In my experience it tends to be the tool that reports an error thats blamed as the problem, not whatever created the PDF file badly in the first place.
Tools intended only for on-screen viewing or relatively casual use may deliberately ignore errors or elements of a file that they dont understand. The page displayed may be incomplete, but youre getting as much of the meaning of the document as the tool could provide to you, without the irritation and distraction of an error message. Tools which need to produce accurate and complete renditions of the page, such as a RIP for production print, are more likely to raise an error message. But even there the vendor has probably invested a significant amount of developer time investigating errors seen in the field and providing workrounds for them.
Many of the errors are pretty minor. A value that the PDF standard states should be an integer might be encoded as a real number with a .0 at the end, for instance, or a PDF operator that is prohibited between BT (begin text) and ET (end text) commands is used in those places. Most PDF readers added code to ignore those problems and just do the obviously right thing years ago.
But theres a constant escalation of difficulty going on. I spend a good proportion of my development resource constantly building workrounds for ever more creative ways of not following the standard. What is driving that situation?
Consider, for a moment, how a vendor of PDF creation tools tests that hes making valid PDF files. Its not reasonable to assume that every vendor will develop a PDF reader just so that they can use it to validate PDF files from their creation tools (and if they did many would probably have to have the same developers write both, meaning that they would not be properly challenging assumptions and misunderstandings because theyd apply those equally to both creation and validation). The most common way to test is therefore to try to read the PDF files they make in a variety of readers from other vendors. Small companies may even short-cut this approach by doing most of their testing in Adobe Acrobat.
But those third-party reader applications arent designed as validation tools. In fact in most cases the vendors who produce them have spent years making sure that they will read every bad PDF file that is thrown at them as well as possible, only reporting errors for situations where no appropriate behaviour can be deduced at a suitable level of confidence.
So if the new creation tool is making bad PDF and its tested in a reading tool thats been developed to accept bad PDFs, theres no error, and the creation vendor thinks hes making good PDFs. Until, that is, somebody tries to read a PDF file from it in another 3rd party tool that happens not to include a workround for that specific formatting error, or which sets a higher bar on correctness of rendering or other processing.
Its a vicious circle. The consumer vendors are always trailing the creation vendors, and all of us are spending time on fixing up the resulting mess instead of working on the features that our customers really want.
So, my plea to all of you is:
Once weve got all that sorted, we can move on to the quality of embedded fonts. Dont get me started on TrueType!
Since 1988 Global Graphics Harlequin RIP has powered pre-press and digital print solutions around the world and continues to dominate in commercial and newsprint. Version 10.0 of the Harlequin RIP, launched in 2013, 25 years after Version 1.0, has been developed specifically to enable print shops to grow out into digital print or to expand into digital marketing. It is the ideal print engine to drive short run digital presses profitably alongside CtP.
Global Graphics Softwares other technologies include the Jaws RIP, used extensively in the wide format segment, and gDoc technology used by enterprise software vendors to develop productivity software applications.
Global Graphics Softwares RIPs offer outstanding performance, quality and reliability for high-volume, ultra high-volume and wide format digital printing applications. The company also has significant expertise and IP in color management, multi-level screening, imposition and trapping technologies. Its research and development team comprises international experts on Page Description Languages, document formats and color science, and the companys patent portfolio covers many areas of printing and document technology.
Global Graphics has always taken an active role in industry standards setting bodies and associations. Today, Martin Bailey, the Chief Technology Officer is the UK primary expert on the International Standards Organization (ISO) for PDF and for PDF/VT.
Global Graphics Softwares customers include leading brands such as HP, Corel, Quark, Kodak, Agfa, Wasatch and Onyx. The roots of the company go back to 1986 and to Cambridge University, and, today the majority of the R&D team is still based near this university town. There are also offices near Boston, Massachusetts and in Tokyo. Global Graphics Softwares parent company, Global Graphics SE is registered in France and listed on NYSE-Euronext (GLOG).
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