""

ISO 32000 Normative References

The ISO Online Browsing Platform is supposed to provide public access to various clauses of ISO publications including the Normative References clause, however, this is not working for ISO 32000 and various other ISO publications referenced by PDF 2.0. Note also that not all publications listed below are freely available.

This page encompasses ISO 32000-2:2020's normative references, bibliography and additional materials.

This page is maintained by ISO 32000 Project co-Leader Peter Wyatt. Please get in touch if you are aware of any necessary changes or updates to the documents listed below. LAST UPDATED: 9 June 2021


Normative references

The following documents are "normatively referenced" from ISO 32000-2:2020. That is, some or all of their content constitutes requirements of the updated 2020 dated revision edition of the PDF 2.0 specification over the now withdrawn 2017 edition.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes, https://www.iso.org/standard/72482.html

ISO/IEC 8824-1, Information technology – Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation. https://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index.html

ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology – Universal Coded Character Set (UCS). https://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index.html

ISO/IEC 10918 (all parts), Information Technology – Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images: Requirements and guidelines (informally known as the JPEG standard, for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, the ISO group that developed the standard) https://www.iso.org/search.html?q=10918 (Note: this URL is a search query on ISO)

ISO/IEC 14492:2019, Information technology – Lossy/lossless coding of bi-level images. https://www.iso.org/standard/75396.html

NOTE         The ISO/IEC 14492 dated reference for JBIG2 was updated in the 2020 dated revision of PDF 2.0.

ISO/IEC 14496-22:2019, Information technology – Coding of audio-visual objects — Part 22: Open Font Format. https://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index.html

NOTE         The ISO/IEC 14496-22 dated reference was updated in the 2020 dated revision of PDF 2.0.

ISO 14739-1, Document management – 3D use of Product Representation Compact (PRC) format — Part 1: PRC 10001. https://www.iso.org/standard/54948.html (This is an undated reference in PDF 2.0, but the URL here is to the ISO 2014 published edition. ISO TC 171 WG 5 is currently working on a PRC dated revision to fix errata so the URL will updated when PRC achieves DIS/FDIS status)

ISO 15076-1:2010, Image technology colour management – Architecture, profile format and data structure — Part 1: Based on ICC.1:2010. https://www.iso.org/standard/54754.html

NOTE   ISO 15076-1:2010 is supplemented by the current Errata list and approved revisions available from the ICC website (http://color.org/icc_specs2.xalter).

ISO/IEC 15444-1:2019, Information technology — JPEG 2000 image coding system: Core coding system. https://www.iso.org/standard/78321.html

NOTE    The ISO/IEC 15444-1 dated reference was updated in the 2020 dated revision of PDF 2.0.

ISO/IEC 15948:2004 Information technology — Computer graphics and image processing — Portable Network Graphics (PNG): Functional specification. https://www.iso.org/standard/29581.html

ISO 16684-1, Extensible metadata platform (XMP) specification — Part 1: Data model, serialization and core properties. https://www.iso.org/standard/75163.html

ISO 17972-4, Graphic technology — Colour data exchange format (CxF/X) — Part 4: Spot colour characterisation data (CxF/X-4). https://www.iso.org/standard/71110.html

ISO 18619, Image technology colour management – Black point compensation. https://www.iso.org/standard/63033.html

ISO 19162, Geographic information – Well known text representation of coordinate reference systems. https://www.iso.org/standard/76496.html

ISO 19444-1:2019, Document management – XML Forms Data Format – Part 1: Use of ISO 32000-2 (XFDF 3.0). https://www.iso.org/standard/74272.html

NOTE         The ISO/IEC 19444-1 dated reference was updated in the 2020 dated revision of PDF 2.0.

ISO/DIS 21757-1, Document management — ECMAScript for PDF — Part 1: Use of ISO 32000-2 (PDF 2.0, https://www.iso.org/standard/71559.html

IEC 61966-2-1 ed1.0 (1999-10), Multimedia systems and equipment — Colour measurement and management — Part 2-1: Colour management — Default RGB colour space — sRGB (with Amendment 1 IEC 61966-2-1-am1 ed1.0 (2003-01)). https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6169 with amendment https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6168

ANSI X9.62-2005, Public Key Cryptography For The Financial Services Industry: The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), American National Standards Institute. https://infostore.saiglobal.com/en-us/Standards/ANSI-X9-62-2005-2085_SAIG_ABA_ABA_5340/ (this is probably not a good URL)

INCITS 4-1986 (R2017) Information Systems - Coded Character Sets - 7-Bit Standard Code for Information Interchange (7-Bit ASCII), https://webstore.ansi.org/Standards/INCITS/INCITS1986R2017

PostScript Language Third Edition, (February 1999), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/PLRM.pdf

Adobe Glyph List, Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/agl-aglfn

Adobe Glyph List for New Fonts, Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/agl-aglfn

Adobe PDF Signature Build Dictionary Specification v.1.4, (March 2008), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/SigBuildDict.pdf

Adobe TIFF Revision 6.0, Final, (June 1992), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/TIFF6.pdf

Adobe Type 1 Font Format, Version 1.1, (February 1993), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-57044-0. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/Type1Fonts.pdf

Adobe XML Architecture, XML Forms Architecture (XFA) Specification, version 3.3, (January 2012), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/XFA-3_3.pdf

Adobe-Japan1-7 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe-GB1-5 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe-CNS1-7 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe-Korea1-2 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe-Japan2-0 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe-KR-9 Character Collection for CID-Keyed Fonts, https://github.com/adobe-type-tools/cmap-resources

Adobe Technical Note #5014, Adobe CMap and CID Font Files Specification, Version 1.0, (8 October 1996), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5014.CIDFont_Spec.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5015, Type 1 Font Format Supplement, (May 1994), Adobe Systems Incorporated.  https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5015.Type1_Supp.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5116, Supporting the DCT Filters in PostScript Level 2, (November 1992), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5116.DCT_Filter.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5176, The Compact Font Format Specification, version 1.0, (December 2003), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5176.CFF_.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5177, The Type 2 Charstring Format, (March 2000), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5177.type2_.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5620, Portable Job Ticket Format, Version 1.1, (April 1999), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5620.PortableJobTicket.pdf

Adobe Technical Note #5660, Open Prepress Interface (OPI) Specification, Version 2.0, (January 2000), Adobe Systems Incorporated. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/5660_OPI_2_0.pdf

FIPS PUB 180-4, Secure Hash Standard (SHS), (August 2015), Federal Information Processing Standards, https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.180-4

NOTE         The FIPS PUB 180-4 reference replaced RFC 6234 in the 2020 dated revision of PDF 2.0.

FIPS PUB 186-4, Digital Signature Standard, describes DSA signatures, (July 2013), Federal Information Processing Standards, https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.186-4

FIPS PUB 197, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), (November 2001), Federal Information Processing Standards, https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.197

RFC 1321, The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm, (April 1992), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc1321

RFC 1950, ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification, Version 3.3, (May 1996), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc1950

RFC 1951, DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification, Version 1.3, (May 1996), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc1951

RFC 2045, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies, (November 1996), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc2045

RFC 2046, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, (November 1996), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc2046

RFC 2315, PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Version 1.5 (March 1998), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc2315

RFC 3161, Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Time-Stamp Protocol (TSP), (August 2001), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc3161

RFC 3454, Preparation of International Strings ("stringprep"), December 2002, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc3454

NOTE RFC 3454 (“stringprep”) is required to be used in PDF 2.0 to maintain backward compatibility.

RFC 3986, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, (January 2005), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc3986

RFC 4013, SASLprep: Stringprep Profile for User Names and Passwords, February 2005, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc4013

NOTE RFC 4013 (“SASLprep”) is required to be used in PDF 2.0 to maintain backward compatibility.

RFC 5035, Enhanced Security Services (ESS) Update: Adding CertID Algorithm Agility, (August 2007), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5035

RFC 5280, Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile, (May 2008), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5280

RFC 5480, Elliptic Curve Cryptography Subject Public Key Information, (March 2009), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5480

BCP 47 (RFC 5646), Tags for Identifying Languages, (September 2009), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5646

RFC 5652, Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS), (September 2009), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5652

RFC 5755, An Internet Attribute Certificate Profile for Authorization, (January 2010), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5755

RFC 5816, ESSCertIDv2 Update for RFC 3161, (March 2010), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc5816

RFC 6960, X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol – OCSP, (June 2013), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6960

RFC 7231, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content, (June 2014), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc7231

RFC 8018, PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Specification Version 2.1, (January 2017), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc8018

RFC 8118, The application/PDF Media Type, Internet Engineering Task Force, (March 2017), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), https://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc8118

ETSI EN 319 122-1 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); CAdES digital signatures; Part 1: Building blocks and CAdES baseline signatures, European Telecommunications Standards Institute. https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/319100_319199/31912201/01.01.01_60/en_31912201v010101p.pdf

ETSI EN 319 122-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); CAdES digital signatures; Part 2: Extended CAdES signatures, European Telecommunications Standards Institute. https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/319100_319199/31912201/01.01.01_60/en_31912201v010101p.pdf

ETSI EN 319 142-1 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); PAdES digital signatures; Part 1: Building blocks and PAdES baseline signature, European Telecommunications Standards Institute. https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/319100_319199/31914201/01.01.01_60/en_31914201v010101p.pdf

ETSI EN 319 142-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); PAdES digital signatures; Part 2: Additional PAdES signatures profiles, European Telecommunications Standards Institute. https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/319100_319199/31914202/01.01.01_60/en_31914202v010101p.pdf

EPSG Geospatial Coordinate System Reference Codes, administered by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), http://www.epsg.org

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, Fifth Edition, November 2008, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). https://www.w3.org/TR/xml/

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) 1.1, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/

Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 3.0, 2nd Revision, (April 2014), World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). https://www.w3.org/TR/MathML3/

Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) X 4051-2004. This JIS standard requires purchase from your local standards supplier such as https://standards.globalspec.com/std/1206038/JIS%20X%204051

PANOSE Classification Metrics Guide, (February 1997), Hewlett-Packard Corporation. https://monotype.github.io/panose/pan1.htm

Pronunciation Lexicon Specification (PLS) Version 1.0, (October 2008), https://www.w3.org/TR/pronunciation-lexicon/

ITU Recommendation T.4: Standardization of Group 3 facsimile terminals for document transmission, International Telecommunication Union (ITU). https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-T.4/en

ITU Recommendation T.6: Facsimile coding schemes and coding control functions for Group 4 facsimile apparatus, International Telecommunication Union (ITU). https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-T.6/en

Standard ECMA-363, Universal 3D File Format, 3rd Edition (U3D), (June 2006), Ecma International. https://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-363.htm

NOTE: PDF 2.0 explicitly refers to U3D 3rd edition and not the latest U3D 4th edition.

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 3.0), (December 2008), World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), http://www.w3.org/TR/SMIL3/

TrueType Reference Manual, Apple Inc. https://developer.apple.com/fonts/TrueType-Reference-Manual/

Bibliography

The following documents are purely informative in nature. They may be of use to developers or others interested to learn more about aspects of PDF however they do not introduce any normative requirements. Some documents may require purchase.

  1. PDF Reference, First Edition, version 1.0 (June 1993), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-62628-4.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/.
  2. PDF Reference, First Edition Revised, version 1.1 (March 1996), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
  3. PDF Reference, First Edition Revised, version 1.2 (November 1996), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/.
  4. PDF Reference, Second Edition, version 1.3 (July 2000), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-61588-6.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/ which also includes errata.
  5. PDF Reference, Third Edition, version 1.4 (November 2001), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-75839-3.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/ which also includes errata.
  6. PDF Reference, Fourth Edition, version 1.5 (August 2003), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/ which also includes errata.
  7. PDF Reference, Fifth Edition, version 1.6 (December 2004), Adobe Press, ISBN 0-321-30474-8.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/ which also includes errata.
  8. PDF Reference, Sixth Edition, version 1.7 (November 2006), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    See https://www.pdfa.org/resource/pdf-specification-index/ which also includes errata.
  9. ISO/IEC 9541-1:2012, Information technology – Font information interchange – Part 1: Architecture. https://www.iso.org/standard/54796.html
  10. ISO 14289 (all parts), Document management applications — Electronic document file format enhancement for accessibility (informally known as PDF/UA)
  11. ISO 15930 (all parts), Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF (informally known as the PDF/X standards). https://www.iso.org/search.html?q=15930 (Note this URL is a search query on ISO)
  12. ISO 19005 (all parts) Document management — Electronic document file format for long-term preservation (informally known as PDF/A)
  13. ISO 16612-2, Graphic technology -- Variable data exchange -- Part 2: Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2). https://www.iso.org/standard/46428.html
  14. ISO 24517-1:2008, Document management — Engineering document format using PDF — Part 1: Use of PDF 1.6 (PDF/E-1), https://www.iso.org/standard/42274.html
  15. International Telecommunications Union, Recommendation BT.709-5: Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange. 2002, http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.709/en
  16. Adobe Technical Note #5001, PostScript Language Document Structuring Conventions Specification, Version 3.0, (September 1992), Adobe Systems Incorporated. See
  17. Adobe Technical Note #5044, Color Separation Conventions for PostScript Language Programs, (May 1996) Adobe Systems Incorporated.
  18. Adobe Technical Note #5088, Font Naming Issues, (April 1993), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    See https://www.adobe.com/devnet/font.html
  19. Adobe Technical Note #5092, CID-Keyed Font Technology Overview, (September 1994), Adobe Systems Incorporated. See https://www.adobe.com/devnet/font.html
  20. Adobe Technical Note #5094, Adobe CJKV Character Collections and CMaps for CID-Keyed Fonts, (February 2007), Adobe Systems Incorporated. See https://www.adobe.com/devnet/font.html
  21. FIPS PUB 140-2, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules, (December 2002), Federal Information Processing Standards, https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.140-2
  22. Aho, A. V., Hopcroft, J. E., and Ullman, J. D., Data Structures and Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1983.
    Includes a discussion of balanced trees.
  23. Arvo, J. (ed.), Graphics Gems II, Academic Press, 1994.
    The section "Geometrically Continuous Cubic Bézier Curves" by Hans-Peter Seidel describes the mathematics used to smoothly join two cubic Bézier curves.
  24. Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) 1.0, http://www.w3.org/TR/xsl/
  25. Fairchild, M. D., Color Appearance Models, 3rd edition, Wesley-IS&T, Reading, MA, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118653128.
    Covers colour vision, basic colourimetry, colour appearance models, cross-media colour reproduction, and the current CIE standards activities. Updates, software, and colour appearance data are available at https://rit-mcsl.org/fairchild/CAM.html
  26. Foley, J. D. et al., Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1996.
    (First edition was Foley, J. D. and van Dam, A., Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1982.)
    Covers many graphics-related topics, including the mathematics of Bézier cubics and Gouraud shadings.
  27. Glassner, A. S. (ed.), Graphics Gems, Academic Press, 1993.
    The section "An Algorithm for Automatically Fitting Digitized Curves" by Philip J. Schneider describes an algorithm for determining the set of Bézier curves approximating an arbitrary set of user-provided points. Appendix 2 contains an implementation of the algorithm, written in the C programming language. Other sections relevant to the mathematics of Bézier curves include "Solving the Nearest-Point-On-Curve Problem" and "A Bézier Curve-Based Root-Finder", both by Philip J. Schneider, and "Some Properties of Bézier Curves" by Ronald Goldman. The source code appearing in the appendix is available via anonymous FTP, as described in the preface to Graphics Gems III (Kirk, D. (ed.), Graphics Gems III, Academic Press, 1994).
  28. Green, Phil (Editor), Kriss, Michael (Series Editor), "Color Management: Understanding and Using ICC Profiles", John Wiley & Sons, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470688106
    (Cf. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470058250.html)
  29. Hunt, R. W. G., The Reproduction of Colour, 6th ed., Wiley, England, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470024275.
    A general reference on colour reproduction; includes an introduction to the CIE system.
  30. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754-2019) https://standards.ieee.org/standard/754-2019.html
  31. Kirk, D. (ed.), Graphics Gems III, Academic Press, 1994.
    The section "Interpolation Using Bézier Curves" by Gershon Elber contains an algorithm for calculating a Bézier curve that passes through a user-specified set of points. The algorithm uses not only cubic Bézier curves, which are supported in PDF, but also higher-order Bézier curves. The appendix contains an implementation of the algorithm, written in the C programming language. The source code appearing in the appendix is available via anonymous FTP.
  32. Lunde, K., CJKV Information Processing, O’Reilly & Associates, Sebastopol, CA, 1999.
    Excellent background material on CMaps, character sets, encodings, and the like.
  33. Microsoft Corporation, TrueType 1.0 Font Files Technical Specification. microsoft.com/typography/tt/tt.htm
  34. Porter, T. and Duff, T., "Compositing Digital Images", Computer Graphics, Vol. 18 No. 3, July 1984. https://doi.org/10.1145/964965.808606.
    Computer Graphics is the newsletter of the ACM’s special interest group SIGGRAPH; for more information, see http://www.acm.org
  35. PKCS #1 v2.2: RSA Cryptography Standard, RSA Laboratories, October 27, 2012. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8017
  36. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification (Second edition), 16 August 2011, https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/
  37. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0, http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/
  38. HTML 5, http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/
  39. JDF Specification, Version 1.5 (September 2013). International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress (CIP4), http://www.cip4.org. https://confluence.cip4.org/download/attachments/1376343/CIP4%20JDF%20Specification%201.5.pdf
  40. Unicode Standard Annex #9, Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. Unicode Consortium. https://unicode.org/reports/tr9/
  41. Unicode Standard Annex #29, Unicode Text Segmentation. Unicode Consortium. https://unicode.org/reports/tr29/
  42. RDFa Core 1.1 - Third Edition, http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-core/
  43. XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, (August 2002), http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/
  44. Adobe XMP: Extensible Metadata Platform, Part 2: Additional Properties, Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    Refer to ISO 16684-1 (https://www.iso.org/standard/75163.html) for the XMPcore standard.
  45. Adobe XMP: Extensible Metadata Platform, Part 3: Storage in Files, Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    Refer to ISO 16684-1 (https://www.iso.org/standard/75163.html) for the XMP core standard.
  46. Cascading Style Sheets Level 1, https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS1/
  47. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification, https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/
  48. Cascading Style Sheets Level 3, https://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/.
    CSS 3 is divided into several separate documents called "modules".
  49. ICC Characterization Data Registry, International Color Consortium (ICC), http://www.color.org/registry2.xalter

Additional useful resources

Additional useful technical resources are included below. These are not mentioned in ISO 32000-2:2020:

  1. Warnock, John, The Camelot Project, Adobe Systems 1990. https://www.pdfa.org/norm-refs/warnock_camelot.pdf
  2. Adobe font-related information and Technical Notes. https://www.adobe.com/devnet/font.html
  3. Adobe PostScript-related information and Technical Notes.