In 2006 two blind programmers started working on a screen reader that provides accessibility to programs and content on computers. Free of charge, NVDA (Non Visual Desktop Access) is now in common use by 43% of screen reader users, according to a recent survey.
In 2004 AIIM and Adobe Systems started the PDF/UA project to define technical terms for accessible PDF files, readers and assistive technologies (such as screen readers). PDF/UA is now ISO 14289-1:2012, the international standard for accessible PDF. PDF already means portability and reliability in electronic documents. PDF/UA extends PDF reliability to all users, including people with disabilities and to other software intending to reuse PDF content.